I am endlessly fascinated in reading about America’s Civil War. So now that we come to the end of the four-year observance of its sesquicentennial, I feel inclined to say a few thoughts about it.
The observance began in April of 2011 which actually is beginning to feel like a long time ago to me. That has given me an appreciation for what it might have felt like to those who lived through it, although I suspect it must have seemed much longer to those folks who served and those who suffered the loss of loved ones.
During these four years there have been numerous special observances at battlefields and re-enactments across the nation. And this period of remembrance has also sparked a good deal of publishing about the war, its battles, and the personalities who shaped the conflict. Yet after 150 years, people are still asking themselves about the war’s causes and ultimately what the meaning of the war was for us as a nation.
April 9, 1865 is generally recognized as the date the war ended. This was the day that General Robert E. Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia to Federal forces under the command of Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. Due in part to delays in communications and in part to southern determination, it took a while for all Confederate forces to surrender in places as far-removed as Florida, Texas and territories west of the Mississippi; and it wasn’t until November that the Confederate ship C.S.S. Shenandoah ended its around-the-world raids before surrendering in Liverpool, England.
For some great books on the Appomattox campaign, I'd suggest checking out Bruce Catton's class A Stillness at Appomattox or the more recent Appomattox: Victory, Defeat, and Freedom at the end of the Civil War by Elizabeth R. Varon. For a shorter account of the campaign with lots of color illustrations and maps, take a look at Appomattox 1865: Lee's Last Campaign by Ron Field.