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In the early years, our city was called The Clearing, but in 1845, landowners Francis Pettygrove and Asa Lovejoy flipped a coin to choose an official name. Pettygove came from Portland, Maine, and Lovejoy was from Boston, Massachusetts. Pettygrove won two out of three tosses, and so our city is Portland. This slide show will show you how Portland grew from 1851-1900.

Photo of Pioneer Courthouse SquareHere are some of the historic places that make Portland special:

  • Benson Bubblers: These four-bowl drinking fountains are unique to Portland.
  • Pioneer Courthouse Square has been a school, a hotel, and a parking lot but is now considered the city’s “living room.”  
  • The Portlandia statue is the second-largest copper repoussé sculpture in the U.S. (The largest is the Statue of Liberty.)
  • Skidmore Fountain was designed to be a source of drinking water for people, horses and dogs.
  • The Pittock Mansion was the home of Henry Pittock, who arrived in Oregon penniless on a wagon train in 1853.
  • In 1900, Portland’s Chinatown was the second largest in the country.

Because of the many bridges crossing the Willamette River, one of Portland’s nicknames is Bridgetown. Some of the bridges that connect the east side to downtown are more than 100 years old!

Photo of Lewis and Clark ExpositionWhat did Portlanders in the past do for fun? The Rose Festival, which still happens every June, started in 1904. The next year, Portland hosted the Lewis and Clark Centennial Expositionwhich attracted more than 1.6 million visitors. Children liked to visit the amusement parks at Oaks Park and Jantzen Beach.

You know it rains a lot in Portland, but did you know that our city has often flooded? In the flood of 1894, downtown Portland was flooded and people got around in boats. In 1948, the Vanport flood destroyed a housing area that was home to many African Americans.

For more information on Portland history, view the past and present photos at Portland Then and Now or check out the city’s Portland Timeline.

Here's a video that shows some of the changes in Portland:

 

Still have questions? Contact a librarian for help!

Outline of the U.S. and image of a camera lens, with the words "CHOOSE PRIVACY" beneath them.May 1st through 7th has been designated by the American Library Association as Choose Privacy Week, and this year it is just as relevant as ever. The Apple vs. FBI fight is still a fresh memory, and just yesterday the Oregonian newspaper ran an article about  the Portland Police Department's warrant-less use of surveillance cameras to build a recent case ("Police cameras on power poles: Illegal 'unblinking eyes' or smart tricks of the trade?").

What does privacy mean to you? Is it a place where no one is watching you or listening to what you say? Thanks to our ever-connected gadgets (our phones, computers, televisions, e-readers) such places are becoming more and more scarce. Every digital breath we take is noted, collected, and recorded for future marketing or security purposes.

Should we care? After all, we get many benefits by giving up our privacy: we receive recognition from others, we can easily share and communicate with groups of friends, we get free email. But a world without privacy is also a world where you are not free to ask questions or seek information without being monitored.

Libraries care about privacy. Why? Because, according to the American Library Association, "the freedom to read and receive ideas anonymously is at the heart of individual liberty in a democracy.” 

The Electronic Frontier Foundation's Privacy webpage is a good place to keep up to date with current privacy issues, especially in the online world. To learn more online privacy, take a look at Portland Community College’s Privacy Online guide: it includes videos and links about the ways that privacy is compromised online, and tips for how you can protect it.

Book cover for Intellectual Privacy by Neil RichardsIf, like me, you’re more of a book person, I’ve made a reading list called “Privacy? What’s privacy?” - it includes current books that will help you start to answer that question. If you’d rather get your dystopia in a make-believe format, another reading list, “Surveillance stories and privacy parables,” includes books and DVDs about the privacy-less society that we just might be headed toward.

Are you taking steps to protect your privacy? Or have you already given up on the notion of privacy? Leave your comments below (and please feel free to do so anonymously).

There was a great response to Multnomah County Library's first comics contest for grades 6-12! It was very hard to choose the winners and honorable mentions, and we're grateful to Robin Herrera and Ari Yarwood, editors at Oni Press, for their help judging. 

Honorable mentions:

Broken Hearts, Stephanie S

Copy Cats, Delana Wilkins

Delete, Quinn Plucar

D-exorcist, Thomas Trinh

Zombie Pizza, Abraham Gonzalez

Winners:

A Little Slice of Dumb Life, Naomi Nguyen

Chris and Fishy! Vol. 1, The Wizard's Gift, Daniela Sanchez

Chori and Chester: the Crazy Cats, Humphrey Hamma

Common Ground, Kay Lowe

Growing up in the Garden, Rebecca Celsi

Picture Day Disasters, Hannah Hardman

Would You Rather, Gabrielle Cohn

The Anglo Files book jacketWhen I first met the Scottish Lad, practically the first thing out of my mouth was some version of a question that many Brits find terribly intrusive: What do you do for a living? People wonder why the British talk constantly about the weather.  Here’s a hint:  Every other topic of conversation is considered rude at best or taboo at worst! I didn’t know my question was intrusive because I hadn’t read a bunch of books on British etiquette and culture.  Again, I thought I had no need of them.  Again, I was wrong. Here are some titles I have since read.  You, too, can educate yourself so you don’t make the mistakes I did!

Many Americans apparently want to (and do) marry British people.  At least two of them have written revealing books about living in the land of their mates. The Anglo Files by Sarah Lyall and Erin Moore’s That’s Not English cover some similar territory, but the latter book explores English and American culturalA Writer's House in Wales book jacket differences with a focus on language.  Moore titles each chapter with a word and then delves into what it means for each country. You’ll get the scoop, for example, on why the English seem to dislike “gingers” while Americans generally find redheads attractive (although an American friend of mine who has beautiful red hair was teased mercilessly in school because of the color of her locks). Other chapters include Knackered, Whinge, Bloody and Dude.

Don’t make the mistake of thinking that the Scots and Welsh are the same as the English! To get an understanding of Scottish life and culture, as well as practical tips on living in or visiting Scotland, read Culture Shock! Scotland.  For a glimpse into Welsh life, try A Writer's House in Wales by Jan Morris.

For even more books to help you navigate the British cultural waters, try these.

I feel like author Catherine Newman has been right there in the trenches of parenting with me for the past twelve years or so. I started reading a parenting column she wrote when she and I were both pregnant with our second children. Later, I enjoyed her book, Waiting for Birdy. She writes funny, thoughtful essays that show up all over the place, and she has her own blog. Her two kids are right about the same ages as mine, and she's got exactly the irreverent but warm sense of humor I most enjoy. She’s a passionate home cook, too, the kind of person who, like me, not only makes her own granola but glories in making it (even though neither of us would ever consider ourselves “granola”).

Catherine NewmanAnd now there's a new book. Catastrophic Happiness is more of a series of appreciations about kids and family life than a story about anything actually happening, although she does have some pointed things to say about how our culture foists its stupid ideas about gender on our children. If you have kids in your house, this book will make you laugh--a lot. It also might make you feel more present, make you stop spacing out long enough to love the life you have with your family.

 

painting of the execution of Marie AntoinetteHead choppings, breaking into prison, more power to the people – the French Revolution was just so exciting!  In this blog post, you’ll learn about all the key events, people and places during this time of upheaval in France.

For a good introduction and general overview of the revolution, check out these websites:  Infoplease’s site includes sections on the origins of the painting of the women's march on Versaillesrevolution, the Revolution of 1789 and the Revolution of 1792, and the Reign of Terror among other topics. The History Channel’s take on the French Revolution includes a brief introduction, short videos and a picture gallery. This site from George Mason University includes a timeline, glossary, maps, music, primary sources and historical essays.  More primary source materials can be found here.

For specific topics about the French Revolution and its aftermath, check out these links:

Storming the Bastille
July 14th marks the beginning of the French Revolution.

The Radical Revolution
Who were the Girondists, the Jacobins and the Sans-culottes? Find out here.

Marie Antoinette and the French Revolution
All about Marie Antoinette including a timeline, info on royal life, biographies of important people in her life and more!

The Execution of Louis XVI, 1793
This website explains what led to the execution of Louis XVI.

Napoleon I: Emperor of France
A biography of Napoleon from Encyclopaedia Britannica.

For short videos about Napoleon, click here.

With all these resources at hand, you can now start your own revolutionary homework project!

My father is in the last years of his life. Once a strapping man well over six feet tall he becomes  smaller and more frail with each passing day. His physical world has shrunk as well and his days are passed in the small, walkable space between “his” chair, the kitchen table and his bathroom and bedroom. The things that are important to him now are few:  watching a good ball game (any seasonal sport will do), his next meal (the man has an appetite!) and a good book to read. Despite his deteriorating condition he has always placed a big importance on reading and having books around. He has always been surrounded by books:  some he inherited, many he was given as gifts and several I have absolutely no idea where they came from (a Japanese phrase book, Milton Berle’s favorite joke book, Tiling 101 to name a few. )

One of my jobs as his caretaker is to make sure he has something good to read.  He loves mysteries (I once caught him starting a new one from the last page!)  He loves Stuart Woods and Alex Berenson. He loves stories about World War II, tales of espionage and anything to do with the U.S. Navy. There is always a book next to his chair and more than one on his nightstand.   

I know reading will always be a part of his day.  And I look forward to keeping him well-stocked with good stories.  They are always his best medicine.

Here are a couple of my dad’s go-to authors:

Night Passage book jacketRobert B. Parker, the Jesse Stone Series
Parker’s original series of nine novels tells the story of Jesse Stone, a troubled detective desperate to rebuild his career when he takes the job of Police Chief in Paradise, Massachusetts.  Along the way Stone battles the mob, white supremacists, a corrupt town council and the occasional homicide while struggling to come to terms witThe Kill Artist book jacketh himself.  All nine novels have been made into films for television starring Tom Selleck as the new Chief. The first in the series is Night Passage which the library owns as a downloadable ebook.

Daniel Silva, the Gabriel Allon series:
Part spy and part artist, Gabriel Allon works for “the office,” the name employees have given to the Israeli Intelligence Service.  While attending art school Gabriel was offered a post with the elite special forces unit, tasked with tracking down the perpetrators of the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics.  At the conclusion of the job Gabriel decides to stay on, maintaining an official cover as an art restorer. The Kill Artist is the first in the series.

lets go crazy book coverIt’s hard out there for a kid, especially The Kid.

Vanity film projects are a terrible idea. Funding is shaky, poorly constructed scripts are battered about, and rumors of an impending Hindenburg of a movie are spread. Fueled by egos and inexperience, these problems offer easy fodder to the media waiting to rip apart the darling superstar who’s in over their head.

Purple Rain should have failed. However, it did not.

Upon its release, the film propelled Prince, and to a lesser degree the Revolution, to superstar status. Alan Light’s Let’s Go Crazy sheds light on Purple Rain's improbable  success driven by an unlikely group of collaborators.

So, forget your shrink in Beverly Hills. Sit back, relax, and enjoy the tale of the quest to make a musically charged film which can only be described as magically cringe-worthy experience.

 

Book jacket: Tuesday Nights in 1980 by Molly PrentissIt feels how buttery popcorn smells, or seeing chartreuse flashes while your ears pop from an underwater dive.

Like a rebellious cigarette you had smoked when you were twenty, or a night under the stars with a girl or a boy who had only wanted to be your friend.

These are just some of the ways that the character James Bennett, an art critic with synesthesia, describes paintings and people in Molly Prentiss's debut novel, but he could just as easily be describing the book. One that has left me in such a daze that I'm at a loss for my own words to describe how much I loved it.

Set in a pre-gentrified SoHo, Tuesday Nights in 1980 follows Argentine artist Raul Engales, bright-eyed New York newcomer Lucy Olliason and the wonderfully odd art critic James Bennett; whose lives are all irreversibly altered on a series of Tuesday nights at the start of the new decade.

Whether you're an art lover or just up for visiting a unique time and place through vivid characters, check out this vibrant whirlwind of a book.

 
 

 

Multnomah County Library's Lucky Day service includes books for kids, teens and adults.  Lucky Day copies are available for spontaneous use and are not subject to hold queues.  Nobody can place holds on these items; it's first come, first served.  That means you might not have to wait at all for the most popular new titles!  You never know what you might find at your neighborhood library - it just might be your Lucky Day!

There are a couple of flavors I like in Highlander romance -- I enjoy the ones that are straight up historical; but mmm, a Highlander story especially if it involves time travel? Yes! Maybe you have seen the new Outlander television series? Guess what? It's based on a book!

The story starts with Mrs. Claire Randall on her second honeymoon in the Highlands of Scotland. It’s 1945 and she's a former combat nurse who has taken up the hobby of botany to fill her free time. She is gathering plants at the stone circle Craigh na Dun when she is transported through time to 1743, and finds herself in the midst the fighting prior to the Jacobite uprising of 1745.

This first novel of the Outlander series by Diana Gabaldon is a passionate romance with depictions of wartime violence, and steamy sex scenes. If you're squeamish about these things this isn't for you. Presented in the context of the times, these details give the story historical resonance. I found comic relief in Claire’s swearing. She doesn’t swear like a sailor but she swears like a healthy woman dealing with brawny men, exciting, brutal times, and frustration. I don’t know about you, but if I was a fish out of water I might swear a lot too.  If romance, brawny men in kilts and time travel are among your favorite flavors too, there's more to explore in my list, Scottish highland romances.

 

If you’ve selected a person for your next biographical report but there are no books about them don’t spend hours looking through Google search results; instead check out Multnomah County Library’s biographies database list.  In these databases you can find quick facts, articles, encyclopedia entries, and even a search engine devoted to famous people.

Still need more information? If you are headed online be sure to evaluate the website before trusting the information. Here are some good questions to ask when doing online research:

1.     Who is the owner of the site? Is it clear who the author of the information on the page is? Is there a way to contact the author or owner?

2.     Is the website trying to sell or persuade you to buy something?

3.     Check the website’s URL to check the authority and validity of the website. When researching, “.edu” and “.gov” are good indicator that it is an official site.

4.     Is the site kept up-to-date, with current links, new material and a creation date listed?

5.     Based on the information you already have, does the website appear to have accurate information? Are there spelling or grammar mistakes?

If you need more help, ask a librarian.

grace jones book coverDo you know Grace Jones?

She’s pulled up to your bumper, taken A View to a Kill, and stole the show at the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Concert. Not ringing a bell? 

Emerging from an ultra conservative Jamaican childhood, Grace Jones created her own path and a life well lived. In her memoir, I'll Never Write my Memoirs she opens her life, inviting readers into a world of adventures and experiences that only her words can convey.

I’m not even going to try. Just take Grace Jones’ words for it.

Already said hello? Try this list for similar books.

When people object to a book and ask their library to remove or move it, the library shares the complaint with the American Library Association (ALA).  The ALA then compiles all the complaints and every year announces a list of the top ten most frequently challenged books.  This is the list for 2015.

Photo of Bob at Mission Purisima ConcepciónI love to travel … and when I travel I often enjoy reading about the place I’m visiting.

Several weeks ago I traveled to the beautiful city of San Antonio, Texas. As a history buff, the obvious choice for something to read was a book about the Alamo. So the day before my departure, I downloaded James Donovan’s The Blood of Heroes to my Kindle. I started reading it on the flight to Texas and finished it up about a half hour before touching down at the Portland airport.

I’ve always thought of the Battle of the Alamo as an isolated incident, but reading about it made me aware of its key role in the wider context of a Mexican civil war and the fight for Texan independence. The Texan revolution actually began several months before near a Spanish mission a few miles to the south called Mission Purisima Concepción and ended with the defeat of Santa Ana's army a few weeks later at the Battle of San Jacinto. Reading about the conflict enhanced my enjoyment of visiting the place; and visiting the place deepened my understanding and appreciation for what I had read.

Now if you’ve ever watched Pee-Wee's Big Adventure, you may be under the impression that there is no basement at the Alamo. Having visited there myself, I have to tell you that this is statement is not true -- there actually is a basement. Although not a part of the original structure, it can be found directly across the street!

Parks and Recreation Season OneBy the Hollywood Teen Book Council

It has been a little over a year since we had to say goodbye to Leslie Knope and friends. This is the show that brought us Galentine’s Day, “Treat yo self,” and so many heartfelt and funny moments.  Luckily, the library has all seven seasons available for checkout.

Even if there was no love loss between the Parks Department and the Library, (Leslie Knope did say once, “The library is the worst group of people ever assembled in history. They’re mean, conniving, rude and extremely well read, which makes them very dangerous.”); these are characters that continue to stay with us. Just as we are gearing up for more  time in the great outdoors, recreating in our parks, we thought we’d take a moment and pick books for our favorite characters.

Leslie KnopeMy Beloved WorldAdventures with Waffles

Leslie Knope

My Beloved World By Sonia Sotomayor

Leslie Knope is not someone to let anything get in the way of her dreams, and she is inspired by a league of powerful women. Since she is on her path to  Washington, she would be interested in the paths of other women that have landed key roles in the running of different branches of  government.

Adventures with Waffles by Maria Parr

With a strong love of breakfast food, especially waffles, this is a book for Ms. Knope. Where she is all about strong friendships and adventures outdoors, she will delight in the kinship and antics of Trille and Lena.

Hatchet

Ron Swanson

Hatchet by Gary Paulsen

Ron Swanson is an advocate for self-reliance, and he has his own fantasies of living off the grid. He will enjoy Brian’s story of surviving in the wilderness after a plane crash with only a hatchet to sustain himself.

April LudgateStiff The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers

April Ludgate

Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers by Mary Roach

Putting Makeup on Dead People by Jen Violi

As far as working for the City of Pawnee, April’s interest and personality seems to be a better fit for the morgue than the parks’ department. We think she would be fascinated by both Stiff and Putting Makeup on Dead People.

Andy DwyerA Dog's JourneyThe Adventures of Captain Underpants by Dav Pilkey

Andy Dwyer

A Dog's Journey by W. Bruce Cameron

We know that Andy has a soft spot for animals. He will enjoy this tender-hearted tale told through the eyes of a dog.

The Adventures of Captain Underpants by Dav Pilkey

We really think that this is Andy Dwyer’s actual secret identity.

Tom HaverfordModern Romance

Tom Haverford

Modern Romance by Aziz Ansari

Even though this is written by the actor that plays Tom Haverford, we know that Tom would appreciate the meticulous research that went into this to show how modern technology is affecting the way that we date.

Donna Meaglefamous-in-love

Donna Meagle

Famous in Love by Rebecca Serle

Donna has all the men falling for her, just like Paige in this book. Eventually both with have to choose if they want to be with just one.

Ann PerkinsLumberjanes

Ann Perkins

Lumberjanes by Noelle Stevenson

Ann is the ultimate best friend. We think that she would enjoy the strong female friendships and the supernatural adventures that take place in the great outdoors.

Ben WyattReady_Player_One_

Ben Wyatt

Ready Player One by Ernest Cline

Bless the ultimate nerd that is Ben Wyatt. If only this book had some more Game of Thrones references. Still, we know that Ben will love this homage to some of the best things to come out of the 1980’s.

Chris TraegerWhat I Talk About When I Talk About Running

Chris Traeger

What I Talk About When I Talk About Running by Haruki Murakami

Super fit Chris Traeger will love this contemplation about a shared passion from one of today’s greatest writers. .

Jerry GergichWhat's in a Name Everything You Wanted to Know

Jerry Gergich (...or Garry, Larry or Terry)

What's in a Name?: Everything You Wanted to Know by Leonard R. N. Ashley

Really what is in a name? Come on, Jerry!

 

-By the Hollywood Teen Book Council

Luna Lovegood

"I think they think I'm a bit odd, you know. Some people call me 'Loony' Lovegood, actually.” --Luna Lovegood, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix

There are so many reasons that Luna Lovegood has captivated us. Her airy ways and perceptiveness bring humor  throughout the series. When we first meet her in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, J.K. Rowling writes, “The girl gave off an aura of distinct dottiness. Perhaps it was the fact that she had stuck her wand behind her left ear for safekeeping, or that she had chosen to wear a necklace of Butterbeer caps, or that she was reading a magazine upside down.”

Initially, as most of us on the Hollywood Teen Book Council are all avid Harry Potter fans, we wanted to do some sort of a book project around the series. When it came time to get started, none of us could get past wanting to suggest books that we thought Luna Lovegood would love to read.

Here is what we would think she should read, if she hasn’t already . And as Luna says, , “Wit beyond measure is man's greatest treasure.”

 

The Theory of Everything

The Theory of Everything by Kari Luna

Luna’s a little bit quirky and so is Sophie Sophia, the girl with an obsession of music from the late 80’s.  Luna will enjoy Sophie’s attempt to find her father, an eccentric physicist who has disappeared suddenly.  Luna will also be glad that Sophie has a friend along on the quest: her giant shaman panda named Walt.

Rats Observations on the History and Habitat of the City's Most Unwanted InhabitantsRats: Observations on the History and Habitat of the City's Most Unwanted Inhabitants by Robert Sullivan

Luna’s interests are varied and thorough, so perhaps she would like this very complete examination of city-dwelling rats and how they have evolved alongside humans.

 

The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho

Aside from Harry, if anyone else at Hogwarts is going to go on a quest, it would probably be Luna.  Unlike Coelho’s shepherd boy, she might come to a quicker understanding of what she needs to find the treasure she seeks.

 

The Magicians A Novel By GrossmanThe Magicians: A Novel by Lev Grossman

Luna attends a school for witchcraft and wizardry, so she might be interested to compare Quentin Coldwater’s school of magic experience in upstate New York to her own.

 

he Girl Who Circumnavigated Fairyland in A Ship of Her Own MakingThe Girl Who Circumnavigated Fairyland in A Ship of Her Own Making by Catherynne M. Valente

Ms. Lovegood is a solid character who is always up for an adventure so she might like this story of a girl named September who’s adventure involves a quest  to retrieve a witch's spoon from the terrible and unpredictable Marquess of Fairyland.

 

The Night CircusThe Night Circus by Erin Morgenstern

Luna wouldn’t be surprised to see a circus appear with no warning, and she might also like the struggle and love story of two young illusionists.

 

Gutshot By Amelia GrayGutshot: Stories by  Amelia Gray

With so many interests, short stories might be the right kind of fiction for Luna.  This collection is human and dark, and full details of this strange world of ours.

 

A Pattern Language Towns, Buildings, ConstructionA Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction by Christopher Alexander

Luna’s unique thought process sometimes makes communication with others difficult.  Perhaps this book, which helps build a common language and coherence within systems, will help.  It’s strongly recommended if she ever designs or builds a house.

 

Unflattening By SousanisUnflattening by Nick Sousanis

Luna Lovegood sees things differently than your average Hogswartian, so Nick Sousanis’s experiment in visual thinking would be at home in her hands.  This graphic novel disassembles perception and will help her to find even more understanding.  Though perhaps she is already ahead of the rest of us?

 

Multnomah County Library's Lucky Day service includes books for kids, teens and adults.  Lucky Day copies are available for spontaneous use and are not subject to hold queues.  Nobody can place holds on these items; it's first come, first served.  That means you might not have to wait at all for the most popular new titles!  You never know what you might find at your neighborhood library - it just might be your Lucky Day!

Climate change is so complicated, that it is difficult to think about how to make the world a better place. Here are a few ideas about what kids can do, to learn about and respond to the situation.Click on the picture to learn more about climate change in Oregon from the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute

1. Learn about it. For information about climate change, here are a couple of websites that provide information based on science.

  • NASA's Climate Kids provides an overview of climate change and includes games to play, things to make and videos to watch.  From NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  • Climate Change in Oregon, from the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute, provides information about Oregon's climate.

2. Do a science project. Check out the Arm Program’s Education Center. This website provides global warming facts for the beginner and expert. Explore the site using the tool bar or the search box for stuff like "Ask a Scientist," where you can ask a real scientist anything. From the US Department of Energy.

3. Calculate your carbon footprint. The carbon footprint is an estimate of the greenhouse gas emissions produced as the result of activity by a person, group or community; it is one way to measure the impact people are having on the climate. Look at this fairly extensive carbon footprint calculator from carbonfootprint.com.

4. Reduce your impact on the climate. Simple things can make a difference. There are lots of things kids (and adults) can do to lower our impact on the climate. NASA climate kids is one place that tells kids how to help. Energy Choices, from the National Earth Sciences Teachers Association, has a game that lets students make find out about energy use.

5. Prepare for an uncertain future. What will the world be like in 25 to 50 years? What can we do to be ready? The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) kids website has suggestions about how to prepare.  Also, check out the Climate Resiliance Toolkit, develoed by a partnership of federal agencies and organizations led by NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
 
Hot world image -- NASA, NOAA Analyses Reveal Record-Shattering Global Warm Temperatures in 2015
For more information, you can also consult a database like Today’s Science. You will need your library card number and PIN to login from home. Click on the Topic Index at the top of the page, which contains a wide range of headings, or you can use the search bar. This database, from Facts on File, is for high school and older students. 

Remember, if you need help, you can ask a librarian online, or at your neighborhood library.

 

 

How do presidential elections work? What is the difference between a primary election and a caucus? How do political conventions work? What is the electoral college? Kids.gov is a great place to start learning about how presidents get elected in the United States. This handy poster walks you through the presidential elections process. When you're on Kids.gov, you can order your own free copy of the poster, then scroll down below the poster for more information about primaries and caucuses, national conventions, the Electoral College and constitutional requirements for presidential candidates.

Poster on from Kids.gov on How to Become President, link to download of PDF version.

Find news stories about the elections at Here There Everywhere News -- a news blog written just for kids by a former producer for the NBC Today Show. The Politics page presents thoughtful stories about about the elections.

And Time for Kids has an elections mini-site with news stories about the presidential campaigns.

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